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Transition to a more even distribution of daily protein intake is associated with enhanced fat loss during a hypocaloric & physical activity intervention in obese older adults

Farsijani, Samaneh (2021) Transition to a more even distribution of daily protein intake is associated with enhanced fat loss during a hypocaloric & physical activity intervention in obese older adults. Master's Thesis, University of Pittsburgh. (Unpublished)

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Abstract

Background: Optimization of intentional weight loss in obese older adults, through preferential fat mass reduction, is challenging, as the concomitant lean mass loss may exacerbate sarcopenia. Recent studies have suggested within-day distribution of protein intake plays a role in determining body composition remodeling. Here, we assessed whether changes in within-day protein intake distribution are related to improvements in body composition in overweight/obese older adults during a hypocaloric and exercise intervention.
Methods: Thirty-six community-dwelling, overweight-to-obese (BMI 28.0-39.9 kg/m2), sedentary older adults (aged 70.6±6.1 years) were randomized into either physical activity plus successful aging health education (PA+SA; n=15) or physical activity plus weight loss (PA+WL; n=21) programs. Body composition (by CT and DXA) and dietary intake (by three-day food records) were determined at baseline, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up visits. Within-day protein distribution was calculated as the coefficient of variation (CV) of protein ingested per defined time periods (breakfast [5:00–10:59], lunch [11:00–16:59] and dinner [17:00–1:00]). Secondary analysis was performed to determine associations between changes in protein intake distribution and body composition.
Results: In both groups, baseline protein intake was skewed towards dinner (PA+SA: 49.1%; PA+WL: 54.1%). The pattern of protein intake changed towards a more even within-day distribution in PA+WL during the intervention period, but it remained unchanged in PA+SA. Transition towards a more even pattern of protein intake was independently associated with a greater decline in BMI (P<0.05) and abdominal subcutaneous fat (P<0.05) in PA+WL. However, changes in protein CV were not associated with changes in body weight in PA+SA.
Conclusion: Our results show that mealtime distribution of protein intake throughout the day was associated with improved weight and fat loss under hypocaloric diet combined with physical activity. Given that obesity is a major public health concern, our finding provides a novel insight into the potential role of within-day protein intake on weight management especially in obese older adults.


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Details

Item Type: University of Pittsburgh ETD
Status: Unpublished
Creators/Authors:
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Farsijani, Samanehsaf114@pitt.edusaf114
ETD Committee:
TitleMemberEmail AddressPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairNewman, Anne/ ABNanewman@pitt.edu
Committee MemberBoudreau, Robertboudreaur@edc.pitt.edu
Committee MemberPerera, Subashanksp9@pitt.edu
Date: 19 January 2021
Date Type: Publication
Defense Date: 8 December 2020
Approval Date: 19 January 2021
Submission Date: 8 December 2020
Access Restriction: No restriction; Release the ETD for access worldwide immediately.
Number of Pages: 40
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: Graduate School of Public Health > Epidemiology
Degree: MS - Master of Science
Thesis Type: Master's Thesis
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: Circadian timing of intake and weight management
Date Deposited: 19 Jan 2021 19:47
Last Modified: 19 Jan 2021 19:47
URI: http://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/id/eprint/40047

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  • Transition to a more even distribution of daily protein intake is associated with enhanced fat loss during a hypocaloric & physical activity intervention in obese older adults. (deposited 19 Jan 2021 19:47) [Currently Displayed]

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