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Grain Structure Control of Additively Manufactured Metallic Materials

Yan, Fuyao and Xiong, Wei and Faierson, Eric (2017) Grain Structure Control of Additively Manufactured Metallic Materials. Materials, 10 (11). ISSN 1996-1944

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Grain structure control is challenging for metal additive manufacturing (AM). Grain structure optimization requires the control of grain morphology with grain size refinement, which can improve the mechanical properties of additive manufactured components. This work summarizes methods to promote fine equiaxed grains in both the additive manufacturing process and subsequent heat treatment. Influences of temperature gradient, solidification velocity and alloy composition on grain morphology are discussed. Equiaxed solidification is greatly promoted by introducing a high density of heterogeneous nucleation sites via powder rate control in the direct energy deposition (DED) technique or powder surface treatment for powder-bed techniques. Grain growth/coarsening during post-processing heat treatment can be restricted by presence of nano-scale oxide particles formed in-situ during AM. Grain refinement of martensitic steels can also be achieved by cyclic austenitizing in post-processing heat treatment. Evidently, new alloy powder design is another sustainable method enhancing the capability of AM for high-performance components with desirable microstructures.


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Item Type: Article
Status: Published
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Yan, Fuyao
Xiong, Weiweixiong@pitt.eduweixiong
Faierson, Eric
Date: 2 November 2017
Date Type: Publication
Journal or Publication Title: Materials
Volume: 10
Number: 11
Publisher: MDPI AG
DOI or Unique Handle: 10.3390/ma10111260
Schools and Programs: Swanson School of Engineering > Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: metal additive manufacturing, grain morphology, grain size, post-processing heat treatment
ISSN: 1996-1944
Official URL:
Funders: National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) grant, Digital Manufacturing and Design Innovation Institute project, ONR grant, NASA ESI grant
Article Type: Commentary
Date Deposited: 02 Feb 2021 19:37
Last Modified: 02 Feb 2021 19:37


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