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Fair Play: Notes on the Algorithmic Soccer Referee

Madison, Michael J. (2021) Fair Play: Notes on the Algorithmic Soccer Referee. Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment and Technology Law, 23 (2). pp. 341-432. ISSN 1536-3872

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The soccer referee stands in for a judge. Soccer’s Video Assistant Referee (VAR) system stands in for algorithms that augment human deciders. Fair play stands in for justice. They are combined and set in a polycentric system of governance, with implications for designing, administering, and assessing human-machine combinations.


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Item Type: Article
Status: Published
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Madison, Michael J.madison@pitt.edumadison0000-0001-6503-754X
Date: February 2021
Date Type: Publication
Journal or Publication Title: Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment and Technology Law
Volume: 23
Number: 2
Page Range: pp. 341-432
Schools and Programs: School of Law > Law
School of Law > Law > Faculty Publications
Refereed: No
Uncontrolled Keywords: governance, polycentricity, football, soccer, referees, algorithms, adjudication, human machine interface
ISSN: 1536-3872
Official URL:
Article Type: Research Article
Date Deposited: 21 Mar 2021 17:36
Last Modified: 21 Mar 2021 17:36


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