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The impact of digitalization in the economy on labor market outcomes in middle-income countries

An, I Younan (2021) The impact of digitalization in the economy on labor market outcomes in middle-income countries. Master's Thesis, University of Pittsburgh. (Unpublished)

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Using country-year panel datasets from 1995 to 2018 of 93 middle income countries, this research seeks to investigate the two-fold impact of digitalization on labor markets outcomes, both on women’s labor force participation rates and gender wage gap. This study finds that there is a significant relationship between internet usage and the female labor force participation, as a 1% increase in internet usages is associated with a decline in female labor participation by 0.01 percentage point. In addition, the study finds that a 1% increase in broadband subscription leads to a decline of gender wage gap by about 0.06 points. Moreover, this study finds no evidence to support the relationship between broadband subscriptions and female participation, and the relationship between internet usage and gender wage gap. This research also conducts a cross-industry analysis in Cambodia to understand impact of digitalization across all industries on gender wage gap. However, the case study is not able to find a statistically significant result on how the rate of digitalization across industries is affecting gender wage gap. They key takeaway from this research speaks to the importance of digitalization and shows how digitalization can be a double edge sword. It can affect and infiltrate every sector of the society both positively and negatively. With that it carries the potential to change social interactions, labor market structure and require people to rely more on technology. Despite its limitations concerning data availability, this research is relevant and important for global policy context as noted both by the Beijing Platform for Action and the 2030 Development Agenda. It demonstrates both the urgency of action and the need to understand why digitalization matters and how policies could prioritize women’s equal access to digital technology and training as a way to enhance their skills and literacy.


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Item Type: University of Pittsburgh ETD
Status: Unpublished
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
An, I Younaniya3@pitt.eduiya30000-0002-7236-0270
ETD Committee:
TitleMemberEmail AddressPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairFinkel, Mü
Committee MemberJones,
Committee MemberOwen,
Date: 4 June 2021
Date Type: Publication
Defense Date: 29 March 2021
Approval Date: 4 June 2021
Submission Date: 8 April 2021
Access Restriction: No restriction; Release the ETD for access worldwide immediately.
Number of Pages: 72
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: Graduate School of Public and International Affairs > Social Policy
Degree: MID - Master of International Development
Thesis Type: Master's Thesis
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: gender equality, industry 4.0, fourth industrial revolution, digital gender divide, middle-income countries, digitalization, Cambodia, female labor force participation, gender wage gap
Date Deposited: 04 Jun 2021 11:55
Last Modified: 04 Jun 2021 11:55


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