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Pathogenesis of Osteoarthritis: Risk Factors, Regulatory Pathways in Chondrocytes, and Experimental Models

He, Yuchen and Li, Zhong and Alexander, Peter G. and Ocasio-Nieves, Brian D. and Yocum, Lauren and Lin, Hang and Tuan, Rocky S. (2020) Pathogenesis of Osteoarthritis: Risk Factors, Regulatory Pathways in Chondrocytes, and Experimental Models. Biology, 9 (8). p. 194. ISSN 2079-7737

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As the most common chronic degenerative joint disease, osteoarthritis (OA) is the leading cause of pain and physical disability, affecting millions of people worldwide. Mainly characterized by articular cartilage degradation, osteophyte formation, subchondral bone remodeling, and synovial inflammation, OA is a heterogeneous disease that impacts all component tissues of the articular joint organ. Pathological changes, and thus symptoms, vary from person to person, underscoring the critical need of personalized therapies. However, there has only been limited progress towards the prevention and treatment of OA, and there are no approved effective disease-modifying osteoarthritis drugs (DMOADs). Conventional treatments, including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and physical therapy, are still the major remedies to manage the symptoms until the need for total joint replacement. In this review, we provide an update of the known OA risk factors and relevant mechanisms of action. In addition, given that the lack of biologically relevant models to recapitulate human OA pathogenesis represents one of the major roadblocks in developing DMOADs, we discuss current in vivo and in vitro experimental OA models, with special emphasis on recent development and application potential of human cell-derived microphysiological tissue chip platforms.


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Item Type: Article
Status: Published
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
He, Yuchenyuche@pitt.eduyuche
Li, Zhongalanzhongli@pitt.edualanzhongli
Alexander, Peter G.pea9@pitt.edupea9
Ocasio-Nieves, Brian D.bdo12@pitt.edubdo12
Yocum, Laurenlay23@pitt.edulay23
Lin, Hanghal46@pitt.eduhal46
Tuan, Rocky
Centers: Other Centers, Institutes, Offices, or Units > McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine
Date: 29 July 2020
Date Type: Publication
Journal or Publication Title: Biology
Volume: 9
Number: 8
Publisher: MDPI AG
Page Range: p. 194
DOI or Unique Handle: 10.3390/biology9080194
Schools and Programs: School of Medicine > Orthopaedic Surgery
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: osteoarthritis, pathogenesis, experimental model, disease modifying osteoarthritis drugs, microphysiological systems
ISSN: 2079-7737
Official URL:
Funders: National Institutes of Health, Lee Quo Wei and Lee Yick Hoi Lun Endowment of The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Article Type: Review
Date Deposited: 25 May 2021 19:34
Last Modified: 25 May 2021 19:34


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