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Determining the Heterogeneous Properties of the Bladder Wall Using 3D-Analysis of the Whole Bladder

Cardoza, Ricardo (2022) Determining the Heterogeneous Properties of the Bladder Wall Using 3D-Analysis of the Whole Bladder. Master's Thesis, University of Pittsburgh. (Unpublished)

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The bladder is a highly compliant organ meaning it can experience large deformations
without experience large pressures. Often, this compliance decreases as the bladder ages or
experiences disease resulting in a loss of functionality. This loss of functionality can cause a
decrease in quality of life of the affected individual therefore a further understanding of the
mechanics of the bladder needs to be developed to better prevent and treat bladder issues. Research
involving the bladder has been conducted mostly on segments using uniaxial and biaxial testing.
Although these tests have set the foundation for bladder research, these tests do not address bladder
heterogeneity in wall thickness of material properties. To address this gap in knowledge, in this
thesis, the wall thickness and mechanical behavior of the intact bladder was studied. The bladder
was first imaged using micro-CT. These scans provide geometric results for the bladder such as
wall thickness and shape. This data, along with the pressure readings, were used to calculate the
compliance. Next, the bladder was analyzed using digital image correlation which provides local
strain results for the bladder. Finally, the strain was then used with a virtual field method to
approximate the local shear modulus across the bladder surface. These tests were also conducted
on bladders that have been treated with hypoxanthine to compare with the controls. This study
showed that the bladder has heterogeneous material properties and wall thickness increases at the
bottom of the dome. Strain is also shown to be higher at the dome and this results in a lower shear
modulus compared to the urethra side. The study also showed that, on average, the treated bladder
has thinner bladder walls, greater volume and is more compliant than the control. These findings
show that the location of the bladder specimen is significant when conducting research as one area
could behave significantly different properties than another. Knowing this, more accurate research
can be conducted on the bladder to further future advance in bladder treatment and care.


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Item Type: University of Pittsburgh ETD
Status: Unpublished
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Cardoza, Ricardorjc114@pitt.edurjc1140000-0001-5211-6660
ETD Committee:
TitleMemberEmail AddressPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairRobertson,
Committee MemberBirder,
Committee MemberMaiti,
Committee MemberWatton,
Date: 16 January 2022
Date Type: Publication
Defense Date: 15 October 2021
Approval Date: 16 January 2022
Submission Date: 15 November 2021
Access Restriction: 1 year -- Restrict access to University of Pittsburgh for a period of 1 year.
Number of Pages: 86
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: Swanson School of Engineering > Mechanical Engineering
Degree: MS - Master of Science
Thesis Type: Master's Thesis
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: Digital Image Correlation, Micro-CT, Virtual Field Method, Strain, Stiffness, whole bladder,
Date Deposited: 16 Jan 2022 17:50
Last Modified: 16 Jan 2023 06:15


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