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Risk and Protective Factors in Men who have Sex with Men and Transgender Women who Inject Drugs

Madden, Casey (2022) Risk and Protective Factors in Men who have Sex with Men and Transgender Women who Inject Drugs. Master Essay, University of Pittsburgh.

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Men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) have higher rates of intravenous drug use (IVDU) than their cisgender, heterosexual peers. The intersection of MSM or TW identity and IVDU is of public health relevance because IVDU is associated with higher risk of acquiring HIV and Hepatitis B and C, higher risk of being the victim of violence, higher risk of mortality, and more. Although literature focused on the intersection of MSMTW IVDU is limited, research on MSM and TW, and research on IVDU as separate subgroups is plentiful. This research can be synthesized to predict what risk factors and protective factors MSM and TW IVDU encounter. Based on the identified risks and protective factors, this paper will synthesize recommendations for interventions and policy that will improve health outcomes among men who have sex with men and transgender women who inject drugs.


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Item Type: Other Thesis, Dissertation, or Long Paper (Master Essay)
Status: Unpublished
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Madden, Caseyccm46@pitt.educcm46
ContributionContributors NameEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairEgan, Jamesjee48@pitt.edujee48UNSPECIFIED
Committee MemberHawk, Marymary.hawk@pitt.edumary.hawkUNSPECIFIED
Date: 19 May 2022
Date Type: Completion
Submission Date: 17 May 2022
Access Restriction: No restriction; Release the ETD for access worldwide immediately.
Number of Pages: 38
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: School of Public Health > Behavioral and Community Health Sciences
Degree: MPH - Master of Public Health
Thesis Type: Master Essay
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: gay, transgender, IVDU
Date Deposited: 19 May 2022 15:39
Last Modified: 19 May 2022 15:39


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