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Client-Centered Breastfeeding-Promotion Strategies: Q Methodology

Cha, EunSeok and Shin, Myoung Hwan and Braxter, Betty J. and Park, In Sook and Jang, Hyesun and Kang, Byung Hun (2021) Client-Centered Breastfeeding-Promotion Strategies: Q Methodology. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18 (6). p. 2955. ISSN 1660-4601

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Fewer Korean women are choosing the 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding that are recommended for obtaining its maximal benefits despite an increasing effort to promote breastfeeding. Successful breastfeeding education and counseling need to be segmentally designed on the basis of client characteristics. This study explored the perceptions of breastfeeding in pregnant and 6 month postpartum Korean women using the Q methodology, a useful research approach to examine personal perceptions, feelings, and values about a concept or phenomenon of interest and identify typologies of perspectives. The Q sample consisted of 38 statements representing the universe of viewpoints on breastfeeding. The P sample (N = 49) included women who shared their perceptions of breastfeeding and filled each grid with a statement in the Q sorting table. Data were analyzed using the PC-QUANL program. Varimax (orthogonal) rotation revealed four factors that explained 53.0% of variance: maternal privilege (Factor 1), option based on emotion (Factor 2), option if efficient (Factor 3), and option if I have sufficient problem-solving skills (Factor 4). Korean women have changed their attitudes toward breastfeeding, with all participants viewing breastfeeding as optional. Breastfeeding-promotion campaigns and education need to consider societal norms and changes in women’s beliefs and perceptions.


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Item Type: Article
Status: Published
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Cha, EunSeok
Shin, Myoung Hwan
Braxter, Betty
Park, In Sook
Jang, Hyesun
Kang, Byung Hun
Date: 13 March 2021
Date Type: Publication
Journal or Publication Title: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Volume: 18
Number: 6
Publisher: MDPI AG
Page Range: p. 2955
DOI or Unique Handle: 10.3390/ijerph18062955
Schools and Programs: School of Nursing > Nursing
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: breastfeeding, breastfeeding psychology, breastfeeding trends, public-health practices, Korean women, Q methodology
ISSN: 1660-4601
Official URL:
Funders: Chungnam National University Research Fund
Article Type: Research Article
Date Deposited: 27 Jun 2022 18:17
Last Modified: 27 Jun 2022 18:17


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