Link to the University of Pittsburgh Homepage
Link to the University Library System Homepage Link to the Contact Us Form

Comparison of Aflatoxin-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the United States and China

Lu, Hexin (2022) Comparison of Aflatoxin-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the United States and China. Master Essay, University of Pittsburgh.

This is the latest version of this item.

Download (986kB) | Preview


According to the WHO, liver cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death globally and primarily affects developing countries. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer and can be caused by aflatoxins. More than 53 percent of HCC patients worldwide come from China, while in the United States, hepatocellular carcinoma is a relatively rare cancer. This essay focuses on aflatoxin-induced HCC, analyzing the extent of aflatoxin contamination, the incidence of HCC, the leading causes, and the relevant laws and regulations of the two countries.
China is one of the world's largest importers of food and animal feed, and the United States is the world's top food exporter. Therefore, the public health and food safety issues caused by aflatoxins have received significant attention in both countries. In addition, there are differences between the two countries regarding food production and handling environments, legislative aspects, and responses to public health issues.
Comparing the leading causes of HCC in the two countries, it was found that the incidence of HCC the HBV-infected population were higher in Asia due to ethnic differences and different types of hepatitis viruses prevalent in the two countries. Nevertheless, comparing the incidence and significant causes of HCC among Japanese, Asians living in the U.S., and identical twins, environmental factors were more influential than genes. Therefore, aflatoxins are the main HCC risk factor of concern herein.
Both countries have room for improvement in food quality regulation, work exposure regulation, popular science and publicity, and HCC prevention. In the discussion section, recommendations are made to the relevant governing departments of the two countries.


Social Networking:
Share |


Item Type: Other Thesis, Dissertation, or Long Paper (Master Essay)
Status: Unpublished
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Lu, Hexinhel68@pitt.eduhel680000-0002-9092-7103
ContributionContributors NameEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairPeterson, Jamesjimmyp@pitt.edujimmypUNSPECIFIED
Committee MemberBeschorner, Kurtbeschorn@pitt.edubeschornUNSPECIFIED
Date: 30 August 2022
Date Type: Completion
Submission Date: 11 August 2022
Access Restriction: No restriction; Release the ETD for access worldwide immediately.
Number of Pages: 43
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: School of Public Health > Environmental and Occupational Health
Degree: MPH - Master of Public Health
Thesis Type: Master Essay
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: Aflatoxins, Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Hepatitis B Virus, Prevention, Surveillance
Date Deposited: 30 Aug 2022 16:46
Last Modified: 30 Aug 2022 16:46

Available Versions of this Item

  • Comparison of Aflatoxin-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the United States and China. (deposited 30 Aug 2022 16:46) [Currently Displayed]


Monthly Views for the past 3 years

Plum Analytics

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item