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The role of inflammatory reactions in xenotransplantation

Makowka, L and Chapman, F and Cramer, D and Sher, L and Podesta, L and Howard, T and Starzl, TE (1989) The role of inflammatory reactions in xenotransplantation. In: UNSPECIFIED UNSPECIFIED, 159 - 169. ISBN UNSPECIFIED

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Since the original description of hyperacute rejection of the kidney, numerous experimental and clinical studies have attempted to define the precise mechanism(s) of this process. While our interpretation of HAR has advanced, one must recognize this phenomenon as multifactorial and the product of a complex immune/inflammatory reaction. The non-specific effector inflammatory cascade that ensues once an antigen-antibody reaction has initiated hyperacute rejection serves as the target for therapeutic intervention by various modalities. Classically, the platelet-coagulation system has been considered to be the most important and has received the greatest attention. These therapeutic modalities have included heparin, aspirin, dextran, citrate, defibrinating agents, cobra and venom factor, induction of thrombocytopenia by antibodies, and various prostaglandins. All these approaches have been either too toxic or the results too inconclusive to be accepted for generalized use. The difficulty in overcoming the inflammatory process in hyperacute rejection and in explaining the discrepancies in the therapeutic results rest not only in the complexity of the biological reactions, but also in their resiliency and redundancy. That is, there are numerous alternative mediator pathways that can back up the same set of functions. Thus, the inhibition of one arm of an inflammatory reaction can easily be replaced by the release of other inflammatory autocoids with complete mediation of the disease process.


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Item Type: Book Section
Status: Published
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Makowka, L
Chapman, F
Cramer, D
Sher, L
Podesta, L
Howard, T
Starzl, TEtes11@pitt.eduTES11
Centers: Other Centers, Institutes, Offices, or Units > Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute
Date: 1 January 1989
Date Type: Publication
Journal or Publication Title: Xenograft 25: proceedings of the International Congress, Xenograft 25. ICS880
Page Range: 159 - 169
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Refereed: Yes
Other ID: uls-drl:31735062110782, Starzl CV No. 1035
Date Deposited: 08 Apr 2010 17:17
Last Modified: 02 Feb 2019 13:58


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