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Retrospective analysis of risk factors, demographic incidences and clinical symptoms for Hospital-acquired Clostridioides difficile infection

Sinha, Neha (2023) Retrospective analysis of risk factors, demographic incidences and clinical symptoms for Hospital-acquired Clostridioides difficile infection. Master Essay, University of Pittsburgh.

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Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile) is a significant public health concern due to the widely spreading hospital-acquired infection primarily leading to acute diarrhea. We collected information on hospital-acquired C. difficile-positive patients from a single academic hospital in Pittsburgh, PA. We studied the use of antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors, and feed tubes as risk factors associated with C. difficile infection (CDI) and performed the demographic analysis with respect to age, gender, and race for these patients. We also assessed the clinical symptoms – abdominal pain/cramping / tender distension, diarrhea / loose stool, fever > 38 oC, and High WBC – associated with these patients.
CDI patients who used antibiotics are in significantly greater proportion than non-users. The proportion of proton pump inhibitors and feed tube users were not different. The proportion of CDI patients older than 60 years and those of white race were significantly greater than patients less than 60, and non-whites respectively. CDI occurs equally among males and females. However, we did not observe any clear relationship between C. difficile toxin production and the above factors. As expected, the CDI patients exhibited the following clinical symptoms: (a) 57.4% exhibited abdominal pain, cramping or tender distension, (b) a significantly greater proportion reported diarrhea or loose stool and (c) had a high WBC count. Also, about 30% of the CDI patients reported high fever. Overall, from the retrospective analysis of CDI patient record from one hospital, we conclude that certain medications could act as risk factors for CDI and also affect certain population disproportionately.
Public health significance: Clostridioides difficile infection is becoming a significant public health concern as the disease severity and the proportion of individuals infected in hospital settings steadily increase. It causes severe infectious diarrhea that can significantly impact people’s lives physically and emotionally.


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Item Type: Other Thesis, Dissertation, or Long Paper (Master Essay)
Status: Unpublished
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Sinha, Nehanes120@pitt.edunes1200000-0001-9341-8323
ContributionContributors NameEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairYassin, Mohamed Hyassinm@upmc.eduUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Committee MemberMartinson, Jeremy Jjmartins@pitt.edujmartinsUNSPECIFIED
Date: 17 May 2023
Date Type: Completion
Number of Pages: 71
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: School of Public Health > Infectious Diseases and Microbiology
Degree: MPH - Master of Public Health
Thesis Type: Master Essay
Refereed: Yes
Date Deposited: 17 May 2023 14:23
Last Modified: 17 May 2023 14:23


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