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Adaptations to Segmental Body Composition and Anthropometric Measurements in Division 1 Athletes from a Season of Competition

Zappa, Ryan (2023) Adaptations to Segmental Body Composition and Anthropometric Measurements in Division 1 Athletes from a Season of Competition. Master's Thesis, University of Pittsburgh. (Unpublished)

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INTRODUCTION: There is limited information on the general presentation of limb-specific body composition, in collegiate athletes. Additionally anthropometric measurements, from a 3-dimensional body scanner (3DBS) have seen limited use in an athletic population. The purpose of this study is to investigate segmental lean mass (sLM) and anthropometric measurements (AM) in the extremities of Division 1 athletes, and how these measurements change over a competitive season. METHODS: Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and 3DBS assessments were conducted on 188 athletes, 108 males (Age(years): 19.98 ± 1.47; Height(cm): 186.07 ± 7.43; Weight(kg): 102.00 ± 24.69) and 80 females (Age(years): 19.60 ± 1.55; Height(cm): 166.51 ± 8.22; Weight(kg): 64.48 ± 8.22) . SLM assessed with DEXA as well as limb surface area, limb volume, and circumferential measurements from the calf, thigh, forearm, and biceps were assessed with the 3DBS. Paired samples t-tests were used to assess changes in dependent variables over a season, one-way ANOVAs where used to assess inter-sport differences, 2-way mixed measures ANOVAs were used to assess intra-sport differences among male and female cross-country athletes, and Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used to compare dependent variables from the DEXA to dependent variables from the 3DBS. Statistical significance was set a priori at α=0.05. RESULTS: Overall the whole cohort saw an increase in all sLM variables (p < 0.001 – 0.012), and saw changes in all AM, besides right calf circumference, right arm surface area, and right arm volume. Inter-sport analysis showed a difference in all dependent variables between sports in the male cohort (p < 0.001) and in the female cohort (p < 0.001 – 0.012). Correlations between raw sLM and AM values were all strong to very strong (r = 0.764 – 0.951; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: These results show that athletes from this cohort generally experienced increases in sLM and AM, adaptations to these measurements were different between sports, and strong correlations show there could be a use for the 3DBS in athletics. More research is needed to validate this study’s findings, since there are few studies which assessed limb specific measurements, and the first study which assessed anthropometric measurements in populations assessed.


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Item Type: University of Pittsburgh ETD
Status: Unpublished
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Zappa, Ryanrmz23@pitt.edurmz230009-0002-0232-0342
ETD Committee:
TitleMemberEmail AddressPitt UsernameORCID
Committee CoChairAllison, Katelynkatelyn.allison@pitt.edukatelyn.allison
Committee CoChairNindl, Bradleybnindl@pitt.edubnindl
Committee MemberLovalekar, Mitamital@pitt.edumital
Committee MemberKoltun, Kristenkjk116@pitt.edukjk116
Committee MemberLooney,
Date: 11 July 2023
Date Type: Publication
Defense Date: 26 April 2023
Approval Date: 11 July 2023
Submission Date: 11 May 2023
Access Restriction: No restriction; Release the ETD for access worldwide immediately.
Number of Pages: 135
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences > Sports Medicine and Nutrition
Degree: MS - Master of Science
Thesis Type: Master's Thesis
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: Body Composition Anthropometric Measurements Asymmetries Lean Mass Limb Surface Area Limb Volume Circumference Measurements Athletes 3-Dimensional Body Scanner 3D Body Scanner SizeStream SS20 dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry
Date Deposited: 11 Jul 2023 15:44
Last Modified: 11 Jul 2023 15:44


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