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Before and After Title IX: The Persistent Entanglement of Race and Gender in Women’s Collegiate Sport, 1892-1992

Brazile, Cordelia Hope (2023) Before and After Title IX: The Persistent Entanglement of Race and Gender in Women’s Collegiate Sport, 1892-1992. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh. (Unpublished)

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Parsing ongoing racial disparities within women’s intercollegiate sport requires a deeper examination of the impact of race upon women’s collegiate sport and the place of Title IX within women’s collegiate sport history. This dissertation argues that despite the opportunities that Title IX has created for Black and white women, its implementation in higher education perpetuated pre-existing power dynamics that privileged white women and predominantly white institutions. The creation of women’s teams, programs, and administrative units empowered white coaches to recruit Black and white women athletes, but it did not result in Black coaches or administrators entering predominantly white institutions. It was the same story that had characterized the integration of collegiate and professional men’s sport. Black institutions, which had offered some opportunity for competitive collegiate women’s sport in the years prior to Title IX, could not compete with the resources of predominantly white institutions post-Title IX. Though Title IX did represent a new era for women’s sport in the United States, it also maintained protectionist notions of what sport meant for women’s bodies. The policy of sex segregation that continues to shape women’s collegiate sport can be traced directly to white supremacist ideology of the nineteenth century. Women’s collegiate sport reflects the ways that ideas of race and racism have always influenced the opportunities available to women as athletes.


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Item Type: University of Pittsburgh ETD
Status: Unpublished
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Brazile, Cordelia Hopechb142@pitt.educhb142
ETD Committee:
TitleMemberEmail AddressPitt UsernameORCID
Thesis AdvisorRuck,
Committee MemberLovett,
Committee MemberWarsh,
Committee MemberPhillips,
Date: 6 September 2023
Date Type: Publication
Defense Date: 24 May 2023
Approval Date: 6 September 2023
Submission Date: 31 May 2023
Access Restriction: No restriction; Release the ETD for access worldwide immediately.
Number of Pages: 236
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: Dietrich School of Arts and Sciences > History
Degree: PhD - Doctor of Philosophy
Thesis Type: Doctoral Dissertation
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: Title IX, HBCU sport, women's collegiate sport history
Date Deposited: 06 Sep 2023 12:40
Last Modified: 06 Sep 2023 12:40


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