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Association between Meal Timing and Multidimensional Sleep Health

Kim, Namhyun (2024) Association between Meal Timing and Multidimensional Sleep Health. Master's Thesis, University of Pittsburgh. (Unpublished)

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Background: Optimal sleep health is crucial for well-being, with poor sleep health linked to chronic diseases and reduced quality of life. Interest in chrono-nutrition has uncovered potential ties between meal timing and sleep health. Despite extensive research, gaps remain in understanding how meal timing is associated with various sleep health domains. Therefore, this study aims to characterize meal timing and caloric distribution among U.S. adults and examine the association between meal timing and multidimensional sleep health.
Methods: This study is cross-sectional and employed 2017-2020 Pre-pandemic NHANES data, focusing on diet and sleep health assessments. Dietary data were collected through 24-hour recalls, capturing the hours between waketime and first eating, hours between the last eating and bedtime, eating window, and 50% caloric intake distribution. Sleep health was assessed via self-report, categorizing into domains such as regularity, satisfaction, alertness, timing, and duration. For statistical analysis, we applied latent variable analysis to identify distinct meal timing profiles. Multivariable survey regression analyses examined the associations between these timing profiles, individual sleep domains, and a composite sleep health score.
Results: In the analysis of 5,965 adults, four meal timing profiles were identified: Daytime Eaters, Extended Eaters, Late Starters, and Restricted Timers. Notably, Extended Eaters experienced better sleep regularity and timing. Conversely, Late Starters and Restricted Timers faced challenges with sleep timing and duration. The study also found that eating more than 2 hours after waking was associated with poorer sleep timing and duration, whereas eating closer to bedtime positively associated with duration and sleep health scores. A longer eating window was associated with good regularity, timing, duration, and the composite sleep health score. After adjustments for demographic and lifestyle factors, which generally weakened the associations, the links between meal timing and sleep timing and duration remained significant.
Conclusion: This study highlights the positive association of early and spread-out meal timing on sleep health, suggesting the need to consider meal timing in dietary recommendations. It also underscores the potential for diet-based strategies to improve sleep, setting a foundation for future research and public health guidelines aimed at enhancing well-being.


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Item Type: University of Pittsburgh ETD
Status: Unpublished
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Kim, Namhyunnak264@pitt.edunak2640009-0006-0490-050X
ETD Committee:
TitleMemberEmail AddressPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairHawkins, Marquismah400@pitt.edumah400
Committee MemberFarsijani, Samanehsamaneh.farsijani@pitt.edusamaneh.farsijani
Committee MemberConlon,
Date: 14 May 2024
Date Type: Publication
Defense Date: 8 April 2024
Approval Date: 14 May 2024
Submission Date: 24 April 2024
Access Restriction: 2 year -- Restrict access to University of Pittsburgh for a period of 2 years.
Number of Pages: 110
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: School of Public Health > Epidemiology
Degree: MS - Master of Science
Thesis Type: Master's Thesis
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: Multidimensional Sleep Health, Meal Timing, Chrono-nutrition
Date Deposited: 14 May 2024 19:19
Last Modified: 14 May 2024 19:19


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