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The Lessons Learned from An Active Tuberculosis Genotyping Cluster Investigation in Allegheny County

Sunny, Persis (2024) The Lessons Learned from An Active Tuberculosis Genotyping Cluster Investigation in Allegheny County. Master Essay, University of Pittsburgh.

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Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that has affected the lives of millions of people globally. It is a curable disease and is treated with medications that are taken over a three-to-nine-month period. It is endemic in many parts of the world. While tuberculosis is not considered endemic in the United States there are several diagnosed infections in certain populations.
For a brief period in history, before the 1980s the statistics on diagnosed tuberculosis infection looked promising. Once the HIV epidemic hit the global scene tuberculosis infection rates started rising and have remained high in several parts of the world.
Risk factors associated with contracting and developing active tuberculosis infection include age, smoking, immune suppression, and social determinants of health. The emergence of multiple drug resistance (MDR), extensive drug resistance (XDR) and global travel are additional factors that have contributed to the increase in disease burden of tuberculosis thus threatening health security. Due to the scope of infection, route of transmission, complex immunological response, resistance issues, and the need for long-term treatment, Tuberculosis continues to be a challenge to treat and control worldwide.
This review on a cluster of active tuberculosis cases aimed to understand the disease burden of one active tuberculosis case and the importance of complete and proper diagnosis, contact tracing, surveillance, and genotyping for investigation. A detailed literature search using PubMed,
and resources from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization, was conducted to gain a broad sample of publications of relevance for review. Peer reviewed literature was reviewed for supportive information on genotyping, diagnosis, vulnerable populations, laws, and the implications of tuberculosis currently. These provided some insight into existing variations in the field of tuberculosis on a state-to-state level and the global level. Accounts from involved personnel and electronic health records were studied to collect information on this case study.
The lessons learned over the years from this case study can provide some insight and guidance to health care settings and communities and help navigate through diagnosis, and treatment if a cluster outbreak of TB occurs.


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Item Type: Other Thesis, Dissertation, or Long Paper (Master Essay)
Status: Unpublished
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Sunny, Persispss37@pitt.edupss37
ContributionContributors NameEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairMattila, Joshua T.jmattila@pitt.edujmattilaUNSPECIFIED
Committee MemberBrungo, Lauren B.lauren.brungo@alleghenycounty.usUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Committee MemberBuchanich, Jeanine Mjeanine@pitt.edujeanineUNSPECIFIED
ETD Committee:
TitleMemberEmail AddressPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairMattila, Joshua
Committee MemberBrungo, Lauren
Committee MemberBuchanich, Jeanine
Date: 13 May 2024
Date Type: Completion
Defense Date: 19 April 2024
Access Restriction: No restriction; Release the ETD for access worldwide immediately.
Number of Pages: 69
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: School of Public Health > Infectious Diseases and Microbiology
Degree: MPH - Master of Public Health
Thesis Type: Master Essay
Refereed: Yes
Date Deposited: 13 May 2024 18:11
Last Modified: 13 May 2024 18:11


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