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The Behavioral and Neurophysiologic Effects of Acute Dopamine Receptor Blockade in the Macaque Striatum

Chan, Vanessa Suzanne (2011) The Behavioral and Neurophysiologic Effects of Acute Dopamine Receptor Blockade in the Macaque Striatum. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh.

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    Abstract

    The pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) has long been attributed to dopamine (DA) loss in the striatum. However, it remains unclear whether simple underactivation of striatal DA receptors is sufficient to induce parkinsonian signs. To test this hypothesis, we performed unilateral infusions of cis-flupenthixol (cis-flu; D1/D2 antagonist) into the macaque putamen, while the macaque performed a reaching task. Twenty-six cis-flu and three saline infusions were performed across three hemispheres in two macaques. Neuronal and local field potential activity was recorded simultaneously from cortex, globus pallidus externa (GPe), and globus pallidus interna (GPi) during most infusions. The reaching task required each macaque to make visually-cued reaching movements to a target for a reward. The macaque was then required to return its hand to a home position without external cues. Injection-related slowing of movement initiation or execution was thought to reflect akinetic- or bradykinetic-like effects, respectively. Following 8/26 cis-flu infusions, macaques exhibited a marked slowing in the initiation of self-generated return movements (95% increase). This was the most severe behavioral effect of cis-flu infusions. The initiation and execution of externally-cued movements were also prolonged following 9/26 and 6/26 injections, but only by 20% and 15% respectively. In general, akinetic-like effects occurred twice as often as bradykinetic-like effects (p<0.05, &#61539;2= 4.1). Interestingly, akinetic and bradykinetic effects could be elicited independently. In addition to affecting behavior, intrastriatal DA receptor blockade also reduced resting and peri-movement activity in the cortex and suppressed resting GPe activity. Burstiness, synchrony, and oscillatory activity in cortex were increased following intrastriatal DA receptor blockade as well. Oscillatory activity was also increased in the GPe and GPi. In conclusion, suppression of striatal DA activity was sufficient to induce akinetic-like signs, most severely affecting movement initiation during self-generated movements. Furthermore, distinct parkinsonian-like signs could be elicited independently, suggesting that separate signs may have unique pathophysiologic substrates. Intrastriatal DA receptor blockade also induced changes in cortical and BG activity that were consistent with findings in the parkinsonian state. Interestingly, many of these neuronal activity changes were specific to cortex, implicating an important role for cortical activity in the development of akinetic parkinsonian signs.


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    Item Type: University of Pittsburgh ETD
    Creators/Authors:
    CreatorsEmailORCID
    Chan, Vanessa Suzannechan.vanessa@medstudent.pitt.edu
    ETD Committee:
    ETD Committee TypeCommittee MemberEmailORCID
    Committee ChairSommer, Marcalois99@gmail.com
    Committee MemberWagner, Amywagnerak@upmc.edu
    Committee MemberBradberry, Charlesbradberrycw@upmc.edu
    Committee MemberStarr, PhilipStarrP@neurosurg.ucsf.edu
    Committee MemberTurner, Robertrturner@pitt.edu
    Committee MemberBerman, Sarahbermans@upmc.edu
    Title: The Behavioral and Neurophysiologic Effects of Acute Dopamine Receptor Blockade in the Macaque Striatum
    Status: Unpublished
    Abstract: The pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) has long been attributed to dopamine (DA) loss in the striatum. However, it remains unclear whether simple underactivation of striatal DA receptors is sufficient to induce parkinsonian signs. To test this hypothesis, we performed unilateral infusions of cis-flupenthixol (cis-flu; D1/D2 antagonist) into the macaque putamen, while the macaque performed a reaching task. Twenty-six cis-flu and three saline infusions were performed across three hemispheres in two macaques. Neuronal and local field potential activity was recorded simultaneously from cortex, globus pallidus externa (GPe), and globus pallidus interna (GPi) during most infusions. The reaching task required each macaque to make visually-cued reaching movements to a target for a reward. The macaque was then required to return its hand to a home position without external cues. Injection-related slowing of movement initiation or execution was thought to reflect akinetic- or bradykinetic-like effects, respectively. Following 8/26 cis-flu infusions, macaques exhibited a marked slowing in the initiation of self-generated return movements (95% increase). This was the most severe behavioral effect of cis-flu infusions. The initiation and execution of externally-cued movements were also prolonged following 9/26 and 6/26 injections, but only by 20% and 15% respectively. In general, akinetic-like effects occurred twice as often as bradykinetic-like effects (p<0.05, &#61539;2= 4.1). Interestingly, akinetic and bradykinetic effects could be elicited independently. In addition to affecting behavior, intrastriatal DA receptor blockade also reduced resting and peri-movement activity in the cortex and suppressed resting GPe activity. Burstiness, synchrony, and oscillatory activity in cortex were increased following intrastriatal DA receptor blockade as well. Oscillatory activity was also increased in the GPe and GPi. In conclusion, suppression of striatal DA activity was sufficient to induce akinetic-like signs, most severely affecting movement initiation during self-generated movements. Furthermore, distinct parkinsonian-like signs could be elicited independently, suggesting that separate signs may have unique pathophysiologic substrates. Intrastriatal DA receptor blockade also induced changes in cortical and BG activity that were consistent with findings in the parkinsonian state. Interestingly, many of these neuronal activity changes were specific to cortex, implicating an important role for cortical activity in the development of akinetic parkinsonian signs.
    Date: 22 March 2011
    Date Type: Completion
    Defense Date: 18 March 2011
    Approval Date: 22 March 2011
    Submission Date: 22 March 2011
    Access Restriction: 5 year -- Restrict access to University of Pittsburgh for a period of 5 years.
    Patent pending: No
    Institution: University of Pittsburgh
    Thesis Type: Doctoral Dissertation
    Refereed: Yes
    Degree: PhD - Doctor of Philosophy
    URN: etd-03222011-131824
    Uncontrolled Keywords: cis-flupenthixol; dopamine; parkinson; striatum
    Schools and Programs: School of Medicine > Neurobiology
    Date Deposited: 10 Nov 2011 14:32
    Last Modified: 16 Mar 2012 10:28
    Other ID: http://etd.library.pitt.edu/ETD/available/etd-03222011-131824/, etd-03222011-131824

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