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Cholesterol Metabolism in the Brain and Dementia

Hughes, Timothy Michael (2011) Cholesterol Metabolism in the Brain and Dementia. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh. (Unpublished)

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Abstract

Introduction: Cholesterol metabolism in the brain is implicated in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Understanding the relationship between markers of brain cholesterol metabolism and the structural changes occurring in the aging brain has particular public health relevance to the treatment and prevention of AD. Methods: This dissertation consists of a systematic review of the literature and two papers of original research. Our systematic review: critically evaluates the literature regarding brain cholesterol metabolism and AD, identifies gaps in our current understanding, and proposes directions for future research. The two papers of original research were designed to address these gaps in knowledge. We examined the relationship between plasma oxysterol metabolites and cerebrovascular disease, amyloid deposition in the brain, and incident cognitive impairment using two longitudinal cohorts of older adults with extensive characterization of cognition and brain structure. Quantitative marker of brain structure were prior to clinical disease using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET).Results: Our review found inconsistent associations between brain-derived plasma oxysterols and AD. Epidemiological design issues and methodological limitations may explain these conflicting results; these include: residual confounding, lack of temporal of associations, and inconsistent direction of associations resulting from stage of the disease at which oxysterols were measured. A major methodological limitation is the scarcity of objective measures to quantify underlying structural changes occurring the brain. Our original research examined the longitudinal association between oxysterols, cognition and brain imaging markers in non-demented older adults. We found higher levels of brain-derived oxysterols were associated with MRI markers of cerebrovascular disease and a greater risk of cognitive impairment over 8 years of follow-up. Furthermore, we found that lipid-lowering drugs modify the association between plasma oxysterols levels and amyloid deposition in the brain, visualized using PET. Conclusions: There are important relationships between brain degeneration, cholesterol metabolism and dementia that need to be better understood. Brain-derived metabolites of cholesterol appear to be elevated in the early stages of disease prior to the onset of cognitive impairment. Brain-derived plasma oxysterols may be an important marker of underlying cerebrovascular disease preceding cognitive impairment and risk for developing cognitive impairment.


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Details

Item Type: University of Pittsburgh ETD
Status: Unpublished
Creators/Authors:
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Hughes, Timothy Michaeltmh57@pitt.eduTMH57
ETD Committee:
TitleMemberEmail AddressPitt UsernameORCID
Committee CoChairRosano, CaterinaRosanoC@edc.pitt.eduCAR2350
Committee CoChairKuller, LewisKullerL@edc.edu
Committee MemberBecker, Jamesbeckerjt@pitt.eduBECKERJT
Committee MemberWeissfeld, Lisalweis@pitt.eduLWEIS
Committee MemberLopez, Oscarollopez@pitt.eduOLLOPEZ
Committee MemberEvans, RhobertEvansR@edc.pitt.eduRWE2
Date: 29 June 2011
Date Type: Completion
Defense Date: 21 April 2011
Approval Date: 29 June 2011
Submission Date: 5 April 2011
Access Restriction: 5 year -- Restrict access to University of Pittsburgh for a period of 5 years.
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: Graduate School of Public Health > Epidemiology
Degree: PhD - Doctor of Philosophy
Thesis Type: Doctoral Dissertation
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: Alzheimer's disease; cerebrovascular disease; MRI; PiB-PET; mild cogntive impairment; oxysterols
Other ID: http://etd.library.pitt.edu/ETD/available/etd-04052011-211650/, etd-04052011-211650
Date Deposited: 10 Nov 2011 19:34
Last Modified: 15 Nov 2016 13:38
URI: http://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/id/eprint/6801

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