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Ethnic and Gender Differences in the Correlates of Bone Mineral Density

Hill, Deanna D. (2005) Ethnic and Gender Differences in the Correlates of Bone Mineral Density. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh. (Unpublished)

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Osteoporosis is an important public health concern because of the significant morbidity and mortality associated with osteoporotic fractures. It is well established that ethnic and gender differences influence osteoporosis risk, but the etiology of these differences is not well studied. The goals of this research were to examine correlates of hip bone mineral density (BMD) and rates of bone loss among persons of African ancestry in three complementary analyses. In the first analysis, correlates of BMD were identified for 1,784 Tobagonian males, aged 40-84 years. BMD was inversely associated with age, height, and history of a broken bone. Lean mass, working on a fishing boat, and diabetes were positively associated with BMD. Correlates explained 25% of the variability in hip and femoral neck BMD.Correlates of BMD were also identified for 340 postmenopausal Tobagonian females, aged 50-94 years. BMD was positively associated with weight, thiazide diuretics, aspirin, recent back pain, and diabetes. BMD was inversely associated with age, thyroid medication, family history of fracture, and beta-blockers. Correlates explained 37% - 38% of the variability in hip and femoral neck BMD.Lastly, ethnic differences in rates of bone loss within gender were investigated among 457 Caucasian and 121 African American males and females, aged 65-87 years. Baseline and follow-up BMD was measured four years apart. African American males lost significantly less hip BMD compared to Caucasian males (-0.04% vs. -0.45%), after adjusting for covariates. Longitudinal changes in lean and fat mass explained more variability in rates of bone loss than weight, after adjustment for covariates.In conclusion, BMD was approximately one standard deviation higher among Tobagonians, despite gender, compared to NHANES data for African American males and females. Correlates of BMD were similar across gender among Tobagonians. Interestingly, older African American females had rates of bone loss that were comparable to Caucasian females, while African American males experienced significantly lower rates of hip bone loss. With our aging society and longer life expectancies for persons of African ancestry, the public health significance of this research is that osteoporosis may have a greater impact among minorities in the future.


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Item Type: University of Pittsburgh ETD
Status: Unpublished
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Hill, Deanna
ETD Committee:
TitleMemberEmail AddressPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairCauley, Jane AJCauley@edc.pitt.eduJCAULEY
Committee MemberPatrick, Alan
Committee MemberBaker, Carol Eceb@pitt.eduCEB
Committee MemberBunker, Clareann Hbunkerc@pitt.eduBUNKERC
Committee MemberBeckles, Gloria L
Date: 14 June 2005
Date Type: Completion
Defense Date: 14 April 2005
Approval Date: 14 June 2005
Submission Date: 15 April 2005
Access Restriction: No restriction; Release the ETD for access worldwide immediately.
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: School of Public Health > Epidemiology
Degree: PhD - Doctor of Philosophy
Thesis Type: Doctoral Dissertation
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: African Ancestry; Males; Osteoporosis; Bone Mineral Density; Bone Loss; Females
Other ID:, etd-04152005-174219
Date Deposited: 10 Nov 2011 19:37
Last Modified: 15 Nov 2016 13:40


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