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A New Paradigm for the Personalized Delivery of Iodinated Contrast Material at Cardiothoracic, Computed Tomography Angiography

Kalafut, John Francis (2010) A New Paradigm for the Personalized Delivery of Iodinated Contrast Material at Cardiothoracic, Computed Tomography Angiography. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh. (Unpublished)

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In North America more than 40 million doses of iodinated X-Ray contrast medium are delivered to patients undergoing CT imaging every year. This particular pharmaceutical is necessary to enable Computed Tomography of soft tissue, tumors, and vasculature. Very few of the contrast enhanced procedures are performed with the dose of the drug tailored to the individual patient or procedure and nearly every patient receives the same dose of contrast material. This dissertation presents a methodology to allow the routine administration of a personalized dose of contrast material to generate contrast enhancement sufficient for diagnosis during cardiothoracic CT Angiography imaging. Parameter estimation of a patient specific model is performed using Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) with data generated from the scanner during a pre-diagnostic "test" injection of contrast agent. A non-parametric system identification technique, using the truncated Singular Value Decomposition, is also developed for deriving a patient specific prediction of contrast enhancement. The MLE technique produces contrast enhancement predictions with less error than the tSVD method. It is also shown that the MLE method is less sensitive to data length and has greater noise immunity. A novel, patient-specific contrast protocol generation algorithm is also presented. It is based upon a constrained minimization (Sequential Quadratic Programming) that enforces constraints on the input parameters while minimizing the volume of contrast sufficient to achieve a prospectively chosen enhancement target. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) numeric model is developed and used to validate the contrast prediction and protocol generation techniques. Finally, a novel, instrumented, flow phantom is developed and used to validate the identification and protocol generation techniques.


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Item Type: University of Pittsburgh ETD
Status: Unpublished
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Kalafut, John
ETD Committee:
TitleMemberEmail AddressPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairBoston, John Robertbbn@pitt.eduBBN
Committee MemberLi, Ching-Chungccl@pitt.eduCCL
Committee MemberBae, Kyongtae Tbaek@upmc.eduKTB4
Committee MemberSun, Minguidrsun@pitt.eduDRSUN
Committee MemberMao, Zhi-Hongmaozh@pitt.eduMAOZH
Date: 30 September 2010
Date Type: Completion
Defense Date: 25 June 2010
Approval Date: 30 September 2010
Submission Date: 27 June 2010
Access Restriction: No restriction; Release the ETD for access worldwide immediately.
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: Swanson School of Engineering > Electrical Engineering
Degree: PhD - Doctor of Philosophy
Thesis Type: Doctoral Dissertation
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: cardiac imaging; computer controlled infusion; contrast enhanced imaging; contrast medium; CT imaging; parametric estimation; physical flow phantom; radiology; system identification
Other ID:, etd-06272010-225143
Date Deposited: 10 Nov 2011 19:48
Last Modified: 19 Dec 2016 14:36


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