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Lava flow field emplacement studies of Mauna Ulu (Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i, USA) and Venus, using field and remote sensing analyses

Byrnes, Jeffrey M. (2002) Lava flow field emplacement studies of Mauna Ulu (Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i, USA) and Venus, using field and remote sensing analyses. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh.

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    Abstract

    This work examines lava emplacement processes by characterizing surface units using field and remote sensing analyses in order to understand the development of lava flow fields. Specific study areas are the 1969-1974 Mauna Ulu compound flow field, (Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i, USA), and five lava flow fields on Venus: Turgmam Fluctus, Zipaltonal Fluctus, the Tuli Mons/Uilata Fluctus flow complex, the Var Mons flow field, and Mylitta Fluctus.Lava surface units have been examined in the field and with visible-, thermal-, and radar-wavelength remote sensing datasets for Mauna Ulu, and with radar data for the Venusian study areas. For the Mauna Ulu flow field, visible characteristics are related to color, glass abundance, and dm- to m-scale surface irregularities, which reflect the lava flow regime, cooling, and modification due to processes such as coalescence and inflation. Thermal characteristics are primarily affected by the abundance of glass and small-scale roughness elements (such as vesicles), and reflect the history of cooling, vesiculation and degassing, and crystallization of the lava. Radar characteristics are primarily affected by unit topography and fracturing, which are related to flow inflation, remobilization, and collapse, and reflect the local supply of lava during and after unit emplacement. Mauna Ulu surface units are correlated with pre-eruption topography, lack a simple relationship to the main feeder lava tubes, and are distributed with respect to their position within compound flow lobes and with distance from the vent.The Venusian lava flow fields appear to have developed through emplacement of numerous, thin, simple and compound flows, presumably over extended periods of time, and show a wider range of radar roughness than is observed at Mauna Ulu. A potential correlation is suggested between flow rheology and surface roughness. Distributary flow morphologies may result from tube-fed flows, and flow inflation is consistent with observed surface characteristics. Furthermore, the significance of inflation at Mauna Ulu and comparison of radar characteristics indicates that inflation may, in fact, be more prevalent on Venus than at Mauna Ulu. Although the Venusian flow fields display morphologies similar to those observed within terrestrial flow fields, the Venusian flow units are significantly larger.


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    Item Type: University of Pittsburgh ETD
    ETD Committee:
    ETD Committee TypeCommittee MemberEmailORCID
    Committee ChairCrown, David Acrown@psi.edu
    Committee MemberStofan, Ellen Rellen@proxemy.com
    Committee MemberRamsey, Michael Sramsey@ivis.eps.pitt.edu
    Committee MemberCassidy, William Aansmet@pitt.edu
    Committee MemberHarbert, Williamharbert@pitt.edu
    Title: Lava flow field emplacement studies of Mauna Ulu (Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i, USA) and Venus, using field and remote sensing analyses
    Status: Unpublished
    Abstract: This work examines lava emplacement processes by characterizing surface units using field and remote sensing analyses in order to understand the development of lava flow fields. Specific study areas are the 1969-1974 Mauna Ulu compound flow field, (Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i, USA), and five lava flow fields on Venus: Turgmam Fluctus, Zipaltonal Fluctus, the Tuli Mons/Uilata Fluctus flow complex, the Var Mons flow field, and Mylitta Fluctus.Lava surface units have been examined in the field and with visible-, thermal-, and radar-wavelength remote sensing datasets for Mauna Ulu, and with radar data for the Venusian study areas. For the Mauna Ulu flow field, visible characteristics are related to color, glass abundance, and dm- to m-scale surface irregularities, which reflect the lava flow regime, cooling, and modification due to processes such as coalescence and inflation. Thermal characteristics are primarily affected by the abundance of glass and small-scale roughness elements (such as vesicles), and reflect the history of cooling, vesiculation and degassing, and crystallization of the lava. Radar characteristics are primarily affected by unit topography and fracturing, which are related to flow inflation, remobilization, and collapse, and reflect the local supply of lava during and after unit emplacement. Mauna Ulu surface units are correlated with pre-eruption topography, lack a simple relationship to the main feeder lava tubes, and are distributed with respect to their position within compound flow lobes and with distance from the vent.The Venusian lava flow fields appear to have developed through emplacement of numerous, thin, simple and compound flows, presumably over extended periods of time, and show a wider range of radar roughness than is observed at Mauna Ulu. A potential correlation is suggested between flow rheology and surface roughness. Distributary flow morphologies may result from tube-fed flows, and flow inflation is consistent with observed surface characteristics. Furthermore, the significance of inflation at Mauna Ulu and comparison of radar characteristics indicates that inflation may, in fact, be more prevalent on Venus than at Mauna Ulu. Although the Venusian flow fields display morphologies similar to those observed within terrestrial flow fields, the Venusian flow units are significantly larger.
    Date: 18 October 2002
    Date Type: Completion
    Defense Date: 15 July 2002
    Approval Date: 18 October 2002
    Submission Date: 23 July 2002
    Access Restriction: No restriction; The work is available for access worldwide immediately.
    Patent pending: No
    Institution: University of Pittsburgh
    Thesis Type: Doctoral Dissertation
    Refereed: Yes
    Degree: PhD - Doctor of Philosophy
    URN: etd-07232002-060104
    Uncontrolled Keywords: geology; lava flow emplacement; planetary science; remote sensing; volcanology
    Schools and Programs: Dietrich School of Arts and Sciences > Geology and Planetary Science
    Date Deposited: 10 Nov 2011 14:53
    Last Modified: 04 Jun 2012 10:05
    Other ID: http://etd.library.pitt.edu:80/ETD/available/etd-07232002-060104/, etd-07232002-060104

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