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The Epidemiology and Health Outcomes Associated with Sleep: A Comparison of the Literature and a Sleep Disorder Sample

Johnston, Kelly L (2009) The Epidemiology and Health Outcomes Associated with Sleep: A Comparison of the Literature and a Sleep Disorder Sample. Master's Thesis, University of Pittsburgh. (Unpublished)

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The public health significance of sleep extends to both the impact of sleep on health outcomes and the demographic disparities of the experience of poor sleep. Sleep is often under-appreciated as a health factor. The purpose of this thesis is to provide a synthesis of the literature on the epidemiology of sleep and the health outcomes of poor sleep. METHODS: A literature review was conducted and compared to analysis of data from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) sleep assessment study. The PROMIS sample is comprised of 258 individuals who self-reported symptoms of a sleep disorder. RESULTS: Literature revealed that gender, race, marital status, and socioeconomic status are factors that are associated with sleep. The literature also stresses the impact of sleep on several cardiovascular conditions. Among the PROMIS study sample of individuals with sleep disorders, marital status, and socioeconomic status were associated with sleep quality. Correlations were found between sleep disturbance and income, education, and body mass index. Wake disturbance (daytime functioning problems) was associated with diabetes and was correlated with age, income, and education. A diagnosis of insomnia was associated with the Caucasian race, depression, and low income. Obstructive sleep apnea diagnosis was associated with high blood pressure, being overweight or obese, being married or living with a partner, and having an income from $50,000 - $99,999. Restless legs syndrome was associated with having high blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS: Though the literature and the PROMIS study analysis were generally in agreement, gaps and incongruities exist both within the literature and between PROMIS and the literature. Specifically, the PROMIS sample found no association between sleep and gender. It is important to note that the comparison is between a literature synthesis of sleep in the general population and a data analysis of sleep-disordered individuals. More research is needed to better understand the epidemiology of sleep and the health effects resulting from poor sleep. Suggestions for future research and interventions are provided.


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Item Type: University of Pittsburgh ETD
Status: Unpublished
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Johnston, Kelly Ljohnstonkl@upmc.eduJOHNSTKE
ETD Committee:
TitleMemberEmail AddressPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairTerry, Martha Annmaterry@pitt.eduMATERRY
Committee MemberKeane, Christopher Rcrkcity@pitt.eduCRKCITY
Committee MemberPilkonis, Paul Apilkonispa@upmc.eduPAP1
Date: 29 September 2009
Date Type: Completion
Defense Date: 22 July 2009
Approval Date: 29 September 2009
Submission Date: 26 July 2009
Access Restriction: No restriction; Release the ETD for access worldwide immediately.
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: School of Public Health > Behavioral and Community Health Sciences
Degree: MPH - Master of Public Health
Thesis Type: Master's Thesis
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: literature review; PROMIS; sleep; wake
Other ID:, etd-07262009-162113
Date Deposited: 10 Nov 2011 19:54
Last Modified: 19 Dec 2016 14:36


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