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Woodard, Genevieve Anna (2009) EVALUATING NOVEL RISK FACTOR ASSOCIATIONS FOR SUBCLINICAL CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh. (Unpublished)

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Globally, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death. Increased risk for CVD can be attributed to smoking, high blood pressure, poor lipid profiles, obesity and psychosocial factors. Markers of subclinical CVD are non-invasive measures that detect early atherosclerotic changes. The purpose of this dissertation was to evaluate novel risk factor associations for subclinical CVD in three distinct populations. The protective effect of HDL-c for subclinical CVD was diminished in a population of postmenopausal women compared to premenopausal women. Furthermore, the concentration of small HDL particles was higher among postmenopausal women. Lipid profile changes with the menopausal transition may in part explain the increased risk of CVD seen after menopause.The protective effect of education for subclinical CVD was evident only among females from an Afro-Caribbean population. Educational differences in SBP and lipids varied for males and females providing insight into potential mechanisms for the education-subclinical CVD relationship observed on the island of Tobago.Tonic cardiac sympathetic activity and parasympathetic reactivity were independent predictors of subclinical CVD in a population of overweight and obese young adults. The effect of C-reactive protein (CRP) on subclinical CVD is potentially explained by the autonomic anti-inflammatory mechanisms linking heart rate variability and CRP. Identifying novel risk factor associations for subclinical CVD in various populations supports the important public health objective of reducing the global burden of CVD morbidity and mortality through early detection of atherosclerosis.


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Item Type: University of Pittsburgh ETD
Status: Unpublished
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Woodard, Genevieve
ETD Committee:
TitleMemberEmail AddressPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairSutton-Tyrrell,
Committee MemberMarsland, Anna Lmarsland@pitt.eduMARSLAND
Committee MemberBunker, Clareann Hbunkerc@pitt.eduBUNKERC
Committee MemberBrooks, Maria Morimbrooks@pitt.eduMBROOKS
Committee MemberGianaros, Peter
Date: 29 September 2009
Date Type: Completion
Defense Date: 7 July 2009
Approval Date: 29 September 2009
Submission Date: 26 July 2009
Access Restriction: No restriction; Release the ETD for access worldwide immediately.
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: School of Public Health > Epidemiology
Degree: PhD - Doctor of Philosophy
Thesis Type: Doctoral Dissertation
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: C-Reactive Protein; Education; Heart Rate Variability; Lipids; Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease
Other ID:, etd-07262009-205448
Date Deposited: 10 Nov 2011 19:54
Last Modified: 15 Nov 2016 13:47


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