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The Development and Testing of the Barkin Index of Maternal Functioning

Barkin, Jennifer Lynn (2009) The Development and Testing of the Barkin Index of Maternal Functioning. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh. (Unpublished)

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Maternal functioning in the year following childbirth has exacted inadequate attention in the research literature. The negative effects of postpartum depression on mother and child have been more extensively studied. This deficit in the area of maternal functioning research is of public health significance as functional status may be a more direct measure of deleterious effects on infant development than depression status. Functioning and factors associated with functioning during this critical time period for infant development has been primarily studied by a handful of researchers. Prior to the development of the Barkin Index of Maternal Functioning (BIMF), the Inventory of Functional Status After Childbirth (IFSAC) was the only instrument designed for the express purpose of measuring functional status. However, the IFSAC is less than ideal for measuring this important concept; its rigid definition of functional status makes it difficult for women to achieve full functional status. This precipitated the development of the BIMF. The BIMF was developed through qualitative methods. New mother focus group discussions provided much of the content (and the framework for a new definition of functional status) that is reflected in the BIMF. This method of survey development has many advantages and helps to ensure content validity and a patient-centered product. The BIMF was also critiqued by a panel of experts in relevant fields. This work resulted in a new 20-item self-report measure of maternal functioning. In an initial psychometric analysis, the BIMF exhibited good reliability (and validity), with a Cronbach's Alpha of 0.87.An analysis of factors related to maternal functioning (as measured by the BIMF) in a population of women who screened positive for depressive symptoms revealed an association of functioning with depression and atypical depression. Race and atypical depression were independently associated with the BIMF in a stepwise regression analysis. The BIMF and the Gratification Checklist were also significantly and positively correlated.


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Item Type: University of Pittsburgh ETD
Status: Unpublished
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Barkin, Jennifer
ETD Committee:
TitleMemberEmail AddressPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairWisniewski, Stephenwisniew@edc.pitt.eduSTEVEWIS
Committee MemberBromberger, Joycebrombergerjt@upmc.eduJBROM
Committee MemberWisner,
Committee MemberBodnar, Lisabodnar@edc.pitt.eduLBODNAR
Committee MemberBeach, ScottSBeach@ucsur.pitt.eduSCOTTB
Date: 29 September 2009
Date Type: Completion
Defense Date: 12 June 2009
Approval Date: 29 September 2009
Submission Date: 29 July 2009
Access Restriction: 5 year -- Restrict access to University of Pittsburgh for a period of 5 years.
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: School of Public Health > Epidemiology
Degree: PhD - Doctor of Philosophy
Thesis Type: Doctoral Dissertation
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: focus groups; functional status; instrument development; perinatal health; postpartum; quality of life; survey development; women's health; functioning; maternal functioning
Other ID:, etd-07292009-090149
Date Deposited: 10 Nov 2011 19:54
Last Modified: 19 Dec 2016 14:36


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