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HIV/AIDS prevention strategies in Kenya. A critical review

Mwaura, Elon (2009) HIV/AIDS prevention strategies in Kenya. A critical review. Master's Thesis, University of Pittsburgh. (Unpublished)

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Abstract

This paper critically reviews HIV/AIDS prevention strategies in Kenya. Since HIV/AIDS was discovered over twenty years, it has continued to be a public health problem throughout the world. While global prevalence has stabilized in recent years, the number of people living with HIV is increasing because of new infections with longer survival times. High rates of transmission result from failure to use effective strategies and tools, and failure to target high risk groups. Kenya is no exception to this situation. Objective of this study is to identify gaps in HIV prevention and make recommendations for improvement. MethodsThe study methodology follows three steps. 1. A benchmark of proven HIV prevention strategies by the HIV prevention working group is identified. 2. Uganda's HIV prevention efforts, a country that has had success in the fight for AIDS, are presented to compare to Kenya's efforts 3. Kenya's prevention strategies have been identified through examination of reports and websites from three umbrella bodies representing the government, non-governmental and community organizations, and international organizations. Examination and comparisons between the three groups will help identify gaps in Kenya's prevention efforts and make recommendations.ResultsOverall, Kenya has put effort in HIV prevention including using several proven strategies, including, voluntary counseling and testing for HIV (VCT), STI diagnoses and management, abstinence, being faithful condom use and male circumcision (ABCCs), prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT), behavior change communication (BCC), safe blood supply and injection safety. Despite these efforts, gaps still exist. First, regional differences in HIV infection, second, most vulnerable and high risk groups need intensive programs, third, prevention efforts lack integration with other programs. Finally there are gender differentials and inequality, insufficient programs for young people and cultural barriers. ConclusionsUniversal coverage of prevention efforts is necessary. Social factors like inequalities, gender differentials and cultural barriers need to be addressed, especially women empowerment. Youths should be targeted through age specific sex education programs. High risk and vulnerable populations should be prioritized. Local leaders and peer training are necessary to reach these populations. A comprehensive and integrated approach to HIV prevention is advocated


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Details

Item Type: University of Pittsburgh ETD
Status: Unpublished
Creators/Authors:
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Mwaura, Elonelonwachira@yahoo.com
ETD Committee:
TitleMemberEmail AddressPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairDocumet, Patriciapdocumet@pitt.eduPDOCUMET
Committee MemberSilvestre, Anthonytonys@pitt.eduTONYS
Committee MemberSharma, Ravirks1946@pitt.eduRKS1946
Date: 29 September 2009
Date Type: Completion
Defense Date: 17 July 2009
Approval Date: 29 September 2009
Submission Date: 29 July 2009
Access Restriction: 5 year -- Restrict access to University of Pittsburgh for a period of 5 years.
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: Graduate School of Public Health > Behavioral and Community Health Sciences
Degree: MPH - Master of Public Health
Thesis Type: Master's Thesis
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: comprehensive approach; HIV prevention; intergrationof services; male circumsicion; women and HIV; Youth and HIV
Other ID: http://etd.library.pitt.edu/ETD/available/etd-07292009-225005/, etd-07292009-225005
Date Deposited: 10 Nov 2011 19:55
Last Modified: 15 Nov 2016 13:47
URI: http://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/id/eprint/8722

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