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Advanced Hydrogels for Polymerized Crystalline Colloidal Array Materials

Kimble, Kyle William (2008) Advanced Hydrogels for Polymerized Crystalline Colloidal Array Materials. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh. (Unpublished)

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We developed a novel photo-polymerized hydrogel material and a new technique for embedding a crystalline colloidal array (CCA) within a thermo-reversible gelation polymer. The CCA lattice is locked into place within a polymeric hydrogel, forming a polymerized crystalline colloidal array (PCCA). The face-centered cubic (fcc) lattice into which the CCA self-assembles, Bragg diffracts light in the visible, near IR and UV regions of the spectrum. We utilized a poly(hydroxyethyl acrylate) hydrogel to detect ammonia in both buffer solutions and human serum. Phenols attached to the hydrogel backbone cross-link upon the addition of hypochlorite in a sample containing ammonia. The cross-linking causes an increase in the elastic constant of the hydrogel which forces the gel to shrink, blue-shifting the wavelength of Bragg diffracted light proportional to the concentration of ammonia present in solution. The sensor functions within the clinically relevant ammonia interval with a 50 μM detection limit in 1:1 serum/buffer solutions.A slight modification of this hydrogel material enabled its use within a bi-modular sensing approach for an organophosphorus (OP) nerve agent. The bi-modular sensing utilized the enzyme organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) and the pH-sensitive group 3-aminophenol as recognition agents. OPH hydrolyzes OPs at basic pH and produces protons. These protons lower the pH inside the hydrogel changing the phenolates to phenols, lowering the free-energy of mixing and blue-shifting the Bragg diffracted light wavelength proportional to the OP concentration. The sensor is reversible, functions in high-ionic strength media, and has a 0.2 μM OP detection limit in aqueous media.We also developed a new technique for the synthesis of PCCA materials by embedding CCA within a thermo-reversible gelation polymer. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) in a solution of water and DMSO exhibits cononsolvency resulting in the formation of nanocrystallites, which act as physical cross-links. The hydrogel formed is thermo-reversible. It melts at 70oC and is optically clear when formed at temperatures below −10 oC. This gelation technique enables the facile synthesis of arbitrarily large PCCA materials.


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Item Type: University of Pittsburgh ETD
Status: Unpublished
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Kimble, Kyle
ETD Committee:
TitleMemberEmail AddressPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairAsher, Sanford Aasher@pitt.eduASHER
Committee MemberMichael, Adrianamichael@pitt.eduAMICHAEL
Committee MemberStar, Alexanderastar@pitt.eduASTAR
Committee MemberFinegold, David Ndavid.finegold@hgen.pitt.eduDNF
Date: 25 January 2008
Date Type: Completion
Defense Date: 5 October 2007
Approval Date: 25 January 2008
Submission Date: 3 October 2007
Access Restriction: No restriction; Release the ETD for access worldwide immediately.
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: Dietrich School of Arts and Sciences > Chemistry
Degree: PhD - Doctor of Philosophy
Thesis Type: Doctoral Dissertation
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: color; DLVO; dynamic; Flory; interaction parameter; latex; light; microparticles; microspheres; nanoparticles; nanospheres; opal; PVA; PVOH; scattering; shrinking; swelling
Other ID:, etd-10032007-213952
Date Deposited: 10 Nov 2011 20:02
Last Modified: 15 Nov 2016 13:50


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