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The Determination of the Cross-sectional Shape and Area of Normal and Healing Ligaments Using Lasers

Moon, Daniel Kunbyul (2005) The Determination of the Cross-sectional Shape and Area of Normal and Healing Ligaments Using Lasers. Master's Thesis, University of Pittsburgh. (Unpublished)

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The reported biomechanical properties of soft tissues are often dependent on the method used to determine specimen cross-sectional area as this is an important factor in tissue stress calculations. Cross-sectional shape is also important, especially for documenting morphological changes in the tissue during healing. Successful measurement of these geometric characteristics, however, has been hindered by the complex geometry of many biological tissues, as well as concerns regarding the deformability of these tissues under mechanical contact. The overall objective of this thesis was to evaluate the cross-sectional shape and area of normal and healing ligaments using laser-based devices. Lasers allow for measurements without inducing mechanical contact and deformation. Initially, the effects of treatment with a bio-scaffold, small intestinal submucosa (SIS), on the cross-sectional shape and area of healing ligaments were evaluated using the laser micrometer system. However, due to limitations of currently available methods such as the inability to detect concavities, a new system was also developed and evaluated. The cross-sectional shape and area of non-treated healing and SIS-treated healing rabbit MCLs were assessed using a laser micrometer system 26 weeks after gap injury. No significant changes in shape were detected between SIS-treated and non-treated MCLs. However, SIS-treatment significantly reduced the cross-sectional area at 26 weeks after injury in comparison to the non-treated group. A charge coupled device (CCD) laser reflectance system was developed in order to determine the cross-sectional shape and area of tissues containing surface concavities. For this system, a CCD laser displacement sensor recorded distance measurements off a specimen while it rotated 360°. The area and shape could then be determined from this data. The system was evaluated using geometric shapes of known cross-sectional area before being applied to biological specimens.This work demonstrated that cross-sectional shape and area measurements can be used to quantify tissue healing and remodeling. Additionally, the CCD laser reflectance system successfully detected concavities on the surfaces of tissues and therefore is a viable approach to biological tissue measurement. However, this system does not offer much improvement in accuracy over the laser micrometer system for tissues that do not have significant concavities.


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Item Type: University of Pittsburgh ETD
Status: Unpublished
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Moon, Daniel
ETD Committee:
TitleMemberEmail AddressPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairWoo, Savio L-Yddecenzo@pitt.eduDDECENZO
Committee MemberMcMahon, Patrick
Committee MemberDebski, Richard Egenesis1@pitt.eduGENESIS1
Committee MemberLi, Zong-Mingzmli@pitt.eduZMLI
Date: 28 January 2005
Date Type: Completion
Defense Date: 31 August 2004
Approval Date: 28 January 2005
Submission Date: 24 November 2004
Access Restriction: No restriction; Release the ETD for access worldwide immediately.
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: Swanson School of Engineering > Bioengineering
Degree: MSBeng - Master of Science in Bioengineering
Thesis Type: Master's Thesis
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: cross-sectional area; ligaments; lasers; small intestinal submucosa; biomechanics
Other ID:, etd-11242004-103750
Date Deposited: 10 Nov 2011 20:06
Last Modified: 15 Nov 2016 13:52


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