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Relationships Between Diet, Weight Loss, Insulin Resistance and Adiponectin Levels Among Overweight/Obese Adults

Dhakal Acharya, Sushama (2011) Relationships Between Diet, Weight Loss, Insulin Resistance and Adiponectin Levels Among Overweight/Obese Adults. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh. (Unpublished)

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Abstract

Adiponectin has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity, regulate glucose and lipid metabolism and exert anti-atherosclerotic effects. This dissertation, designed as three research papers, aimed to examine relationships between diet, weight loss, insulin resistance and adiponectin levels among overweight/obese adults who were participating in a behavioral intervention for weight loss. Data from the ancillary study to the PREFER trial were used for two of the papers and secondary data analysis from the SMART trial was conducted for the third paper. Both parent studies were randomized clinical trials that included a behavioral intervention for weight loss. The first study compared the effect of a standard calorie- and fat-restricted diet and a calorie- and fat-restricted lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet on changes in adiponectin levels at six months (N=143). Weight loss was associated with increased total (â(s.e) = -0.71(0.27); P = 0.003) and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin levels (â(s.e) = -1.37(0.47); P = 0.001); however, they were independent of the diet type. The second study examined whether baseline levels or intervention-associated changes in adiponectin levels were associated with insulin resistance after six months (N=143). At baseline, we found significant inverse associations between total (â(s.e) = -0.26(0.05); P < 0.001) and HMW(â(s.e) = -0.38(0.09); P < 0.001) adiponectin levels and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA) independent of weight. At six months, there was a significant inverse association between changes in total adiponectin and HOMA (â(s.e) = -0.17(0.08); P = 0.04) that was independent of baseline weight and weight loss. However, the association between changes in HMW adiponectin and HOMA was not significant. The third study assessed the longitudinal relationships of weight, waist circumference and body composition with adiponectin levels after six and 12 months (N=133). A significant increase in adiponectin was observed with significant reductions in weight, body mass index, waist circumference, and percent body fat (P for all, < 0.001). Our findings provide evidence for the importance of weight loss as a significant public health preventive measure to enhance adiponectin levels among the studied population, which could impact the progression of atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular disease.


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Details

Item Type: University of Pittsburgh ETD
Status: Unpublished
Creators/Authors:
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Dhakal Acharya, Sushama3dhakals@gmail.com
ETD Committee:
TitleMemberEmail AddressPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairBurke, Lora Elbu100@pitt.eduLBU100
Committee MemberLinkov, Fainaflinkov@upmc.edu
Committee MemberBrooks, Maria Mbrooks@edc.pitt.eduMBROOKS
Committee MemberEvans, Rhobert Wevansr@edc.pitt.eduRWE2
Date: 31 January 2011
Date Type: Completion
Defense Date: 6 December 2010
Approval Date: 31 January 2011
Submission Date: 30 November 2010
Access Restriction: No restriction; Release the ETD for access worldwide immediately.
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: Graduate School of Public Health > Epidemiology
Degree: PhD - Doctor of Philosophy
Thesis Type: Doctoral Dissertation
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: Adiponectin; Diet; Insulin Resistance; Weight Loss
Other ID: http://etd.library.pitt.edu/ETD/available/etd-11302010-154304/, etd-11302010-154304
Date Deposited: 10 Nov 2011 20:07
Last Modified: 15 Nov 2016 13:52
URI: http://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/id/eprint/9895

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