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Mazzardo Jr., Oldemar (2004) CONTEXTUAL INTERFERENCE: IS IT SUPPORTED ACROSS STUDIES? Master's Thesis, University of Pittsburgh. (Unpublished)

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This meta-analysis examined the influence of the task, environment and learners characteristics during motor skill learning situations for varying organizations of task presentations (Contextual Interference). Types of tasks (open and closed skills) were evaluated based upon settings (laboratory and real world) with diverse populations (gender, age groups, and level of expertise). The strength of the CI effect was investigated based on whether the skill variation was a variation of the same or different Generalized Motor Program (GMP). Effect sizes were calculated subtracting low (blocked) from high (random/serial) contextual interference schedules of practice during acquisition, retention and transfer phases. Seventy-five published studies were found in the literature search. A total of 309 effect sizes were computed from 51 studies. The overall treatment effect supported contextual interference for blocked and random comparisons but not for blocked and serial comparisons. Another important finding was that contextual interference is most strongly supported for variation in GMP than for variation in parameter when comparing blocked and random schedules of practice. Furthermore, similar effect sizes were demonstrated for ecologically valid and non-ecologically valid settings, reinforcing the applicability of contextual interference theory in teaching motor skills in real world situations. Effect size differences among varied levels of amounts of practice, internal validity, and knowledge of results were not significantly different but pointed to directions that are worth of discussion.


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Item Type: University of Pittsburgh ETD
Status: Unpublished
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Mazzardo Jr., Oldemarolmst2@pitt.eduOLMST2
ETD Committee:
TitleMemberEmail AddressPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairGallagher, Jere
Committee MemberPingel, Louis A
Committee MemberKlein, Roger
Date: 8 December 2004
Date Type: Completion
Defense Date: 27 September 2004
Approval Date: 8 December 2004
Submission Date: 2 December 2004
Access Restriction: No restriction; Release the ETD for access worldwide immediately.
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: School of Education > Health, Physical, Recreational Education
Degree: MS - Master of Science
Thesis Type: Master's Thesis
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: blocked practice; contextual interference; motor learning; motor skill learning; random practice; schedules of practice
Other ID:, etd-12022004-001440
Date Deposited: 10 Nov 2011 20:07
Last Modified: 15 Nov 2016 13:52


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